Chapulines is the plural of chapulin, which is the common Spanish term used for Sphenarium spp grasshoppers:
Domestic demand for chapulines is high, but since they are a common crop pest in the region, populations are currently limited due to pesticide use. Recent research suggests that limited use of agrochemicals, mimicking traditional pre-hispanic farming methods, could lead to a significant rise in the chapulines harvest.
Another insect that can be found at some market stalls is the guano, also known as the 'Agave worm'. It is a Coleoptera (beetle/weevil) larva, and it is found in the Agave cactus, a plant of great cultural importance in Oaxaca. Unlike the abundant chapulines, these insects are comparatively rare and prices are high - for 5MXN we were given just two worms!
Finally, one other insect is particularly important to Oaxaca, although not as food. Like the 'gusano' worm, it lives on a cactus:
Here is what happens if you crush a cochineal beetle between your fingers: